Faculté des Sciences Dép.biologie

République Démocratique du Congo

UNIVERSITE OFFICIELLE DE BUKAVU

Faculté des Sciences

Département de Biologie

 

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

PROGRAMME

Master of Science in Fisheries and Aquaculture

Department of Biology

Faculty of Sciences

Université Officielle de Bukavu/Official University of Bukavu, OUB

www.univofbukavu.org

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION.. 3

2. PROGRAMME GOALS. 3

3. LEARNING OUTCOME.. 4

4. SKILLS AND OPPORTUNITIES. 5

5. PROFILE OF THE PROGRAMME.. 5

Teaching methods. 5

Evaluation criteria. 5

Evaluation of Academic Standing. 6

6. ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS. 7

7. ACADEMIC CALENDAR.. 8

8. COURSES OFFERED (120 credits). 8

9. OUTLINE OF COURSES OFFERED THROUGHOUT THE PROGRAMME.. 9

10. WELCOME AND INTEGRATION RELATED ACTIVITIES. 21

11. TACKLING MAJOR DEVELOPMENT ISSUES IN THE EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICA REGION    22

 

 

1. INTRODUCTION

Official University of Bukavu (www.univofbukavu.org) is a public university located in Bukavu, capital of South Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo and crossroads of the Great Lakes region. The University is organized in faculties, departments, and research facilities. Its original mandate was to train and deliver scholars capable to foster innovations responsive to the demands of society and sustainable development. The Faculty of Sciences offers courses in Earth Sciences in the Department of Geology, Life Sciences in the Department of Biology, and Environmental Sciences in the Department of Environment.

The Department of Biology has the mandate to train, research and disseminate knowledge in Biological Sciences and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. Among the courses offered by the Department of Biology include: Bachelor of Science in Hydrobiology (3 years); Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology (3 years); Bachelor of Science in Ecology and Management of Plants Resources (Botany) (3 years); Honors (Licentiate) of Science in Hydrobiology (2 years);  Honors (Licentiate) of Science in Biotechnology (2 years); Honors (Licentiate) of Science in Ecology and Management of Plants Resources (Botany) (2 years); Master of Science in Fisheries and aquaculture (Hydrobiology) (2 years); Master of Science in Ecology and Management of Plants Resources (2 years) and  PhD in Biological Sciences (3years).

The Hydrobiology Section is mandated to train and equip graduates with the requisite academic and entrepreneurial skills in the areas of aquatic sciences, with focus in the management of fisheries and aquatic resources, fisheries and aquaculture, conservation and sustainable use of aquatic habitats, limnology, fisheries, climate change and variability, among others. In this regard, the Section involves in strengthening staff capacity building and training high quality scholars skilled with research culture and being able to address the fisheries, aquaculture, biological and aquatic resources management challenges.

 

2. PROGRAMME GOALS

 

Master of Science in Fisheries and Aquaculture is a two years full-time course conducted by the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of the Official University of Bukavu. This course has been designed to provide an adequate scientific knowledge and through training in the fields of fisheries and aquaculture; and promote sustainable management practices, tools and novel techniques for the different aspects of fisheries and aquaculture.

The objective of the programme is to provide the students with a multidisciplinary education in a number of basic disciplines and in specific aspects of fisheries and aquaculture with the aim:

  1. to deliver academically trained scholars in the fields of fisheries and aquaculture ;
  2. to deliver independent researchers able to perform and design research in various fisheries and aquaculture fields;
  3. to deliver experts who can draw and implement strategies for future and sustainable development in the fisheries and aquaculture industry; 

 

3. LEARNING OUTCOME

he student

  1. possesses a broad knowledge at an advanced level in a number of basic disciplines relevant to fisheries and aquaculture;
  2. understands the processes ongoing in different forms and systems of aquatic production;
  3. has acquired a broad knowledge on the production of aquatic organisms;
  4. has acquired practical experience in production of aquatic organisms and their non/live feeds;
  5. has acquired a scientific approach to formulate and test hypotheses to design research protocols, and to collect and analyze data;
  6. can identify and analyze the interactions between aquatic biological production systems and their environmental context, and can implement potential mitigating interventions;
  7. can identify and analyze the interactions between aquatic biological production systems and their socio-economic context, and is familiar with the practicalities and organization of commercial ventures;
  8. can design and implement strategies for future development in fisheries and aquaculture;
  9. is able to interact with peers, with various stakeholders in the fisheries and aquaculture sector, and with a general public concerning personal research, thoughts, ideas, and research proposals, both written and orally. 

 

4. SKILLS AND OPPORTUNITIES

 

MSc in Fisheries and Aquaculture is intended for graduates, who are engaged or seeking carrier opportunities in academic institutions; researchers; fisheries, aquaculture and related industries; aquatic animal health sector; government agencies; private sector; corporation and other statutory bodies. The programme is also aligned for the industries seeking self-employment in Fisheries and Aquaculture sector.

 

5. PROFILE OF THE PROGRAMME

 

Teaching methods

Studies leading to MSc Degree are two years long. It is a programme of 120 credits spread over four semesters, at a rate of 30 credits per semester. The Programme includes a combination of lectures, course works, practical and tutorials, seminars, application exercises and assignments, laboratory works, fieldworks including outreach programmes, group discussions, and internships. Lectures are delivered mainly through classroom-oriented approaches. Fieldworks are given through practical sessions, field studies, farmer-student-lecturer interactions and case studies; the enhancement of the individual experience of learners and exchanges that enable rapid development of skills, the development of analytical skills, critical and synthesis. The Programme is based on the competency approach with the use of « international » languages, namely French and English, active teaching methods and the use of modern information and communication technologies. Field Research allows students to undertake independent and original research and guided by supervisors into research subjects oriented to specific fields. 

Evaluation criteria

 

The first and the second semesters of the first year focus on lectures, course works, practical and tutorials, seminars, application exercises and assignments, laboratory works, fieldworks including outreach programmes, group discussions, and internships (where applicable). At the end of the first year (semester 1 & 2), the students are submitted to an examination, in accordance with the provisions provided in the National Regulations for HEIs. An evaluation in two forms: two regular semi-annual (semestrial) sessions, at the end of each semester and one annual catch-up session (retake session). The evaluation is subject to:

– The presence and active participation of students in the programme;

– Obtaining the necessary credits for the whole programme of compulsory, cross-cutting and optional courses (teaching units), including lectures, assignments, seminars, laboratory and field reports, laboratory assessments, and end of course examination.

The nature of the tests varies depending on the subject set. Several modalities can be combined: practical examinations, written and/or oral examinations, in the form of individual or group work, in continuous monitoring and in terminal examination.

 

The second year is dedicated to data collection, dissertation writing up and public defense of the final work (master’s Dissertation/Thesis). Students can choose the topic for their master’s Dissertation (thesis) in a broad range of disciplines in which the academic staff of the master’s programme is active. Students have to conduct research with the appropriate expertise in order to contribute to the development of a particular research domain. The ultimate goal is to initiate students into research at an academic level so that, upon completion of their master’s programme, they are able to carry out scientific research in a proper way. The work must lead to a scientific product of the level acceptable by an examination panel of the Dissertation /Thesis. 

To successfully complete the programme courses, students must achieve a passing grade of 50% or higher on the overall course and 50% or higher on the mandatory final project. The end of the programme (course and dissertation) will be sanctioned by a certificate of Master of Science in Fisheries and Aquaculture.

 

Evaluation of Academic Standing

 

The final assessment of the candidate is done as follows:

– 40% of the marks come from annual individual works within the framework of the course works,             practical, seminars, application exercises and assignments, laboratory works, fieldworks             including outreach programmes, group discussions, and internships (where applicable).;

– 30% of the final exam marks

– 30% of the dissertation or thesis

The result obtained by the student in a subject/course, in the internship or in practical (individual works) is expressed in the form of a numerical score on a scale of 0 to 20. The assessment can also be qualitative. The following correspondence is established between the qualitative assessment and the quantitative assessment:

Range

Status Descriptor

18 and over

Brilliant

16 – 17.5

Excellent

14 – 15.5

Very good

12 – 13,5

Good

10 – 11.5

Fairly good

10

fair

8.5 – 9.5

Insufficient

7 – 8

Mediocre

5 – 6.5

Bad

1 – 4.5

Quite bad

0 – 0.9

Nil

 

6. ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

Candidates who have an overall average of at least 60% on all the marks obtained in the Bachelor or equivalent from a recognized university are eligible for the MSc programme. The candidate must provide a recommendation from his employer and two of his former Lecturers. A certificate of physical fitness is required.

The application for admission to the MSc programme should be addressed to the Head of Department and copies are communicated to the Depute Dean in charge of research and to the Academic General Secretary (Academic Registrar).

The application should include copies of the candidate’s academic titles (Certificates & Transcripts) and curriculum vitae. After submitting the application for admission to the Department’s secretariat, the Department Council decides on the candidate’s admissibility and submits it to the Faculty Council, which decides on the opinion issued by the Department Council. Admission proposals are forwarded hierarchically to the Rector (Vice Chancellor) for decision.

 

Enrollment is confirmed by the payment of enrollment fees and study fees (tuition), the rate of which is fixed annually by the University Council. Depending on the type of study, additional costs may be considered.

7. ACADEMIC CALENDAR

The timetable for postgraduate programme is established by the Official University of Bukavu (UOB) in accordance with the provisions provided in the National Regulations for HEIs.

8. COURSES OFFERED (120 credits)

 

MASTER YEAR I FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE

 

SEMESTER I

CODE

Courses

Modules

Credits

PA611

Research methods

Scientific research methodology

2

Bio-Statistics

8

PA612

Languages

English/ French

4

PA613

Spatial analyzes (GIS,RS)

Spatial analyzes (GIS,RS)

7

PA614

 Environmental & Impact Assessment

 Environmental Impact Assessment

3

PA615

Water quality analysis

Water quality analysis

3

PA616

Proposal Development

Proposal Development

15

PA617

Advanced fish taxonomic methods

Advanced fish taxonomic methods

4

PA618

Fisheries biology

Fisheries biology

5

PA619

Planning  and management of wetlands

 

3

 

TOTAL/SEM I 

 

54

 

 

 

SEMESTER II

CODE

Courses

Modules

TT (Credits)

PA621

Planning and management of fisheries resources

 

3

PA622

Lacustrine natural gases and Limnic eruption risks

 

4

PA623

Planktonology

Planktonology

6

PA624

Fisheries legislation and socio-economics

 

4

PA625

Aquariology

Aquariology

3

PA626

Aquaculture

Partim 1 : Semi-intensive and integrated systems

4

Partim 2 : Intensive systems

2

Partim 3 : Economic aspects

1

Fish feed and nutrition

5

Fish diseases

2

PA627

Management of Quality and safety of fish products

Partim 1 : Quality and safety of fish products Management

2

Partim 2 : Processing and marketing of fish products

5

 

TOTAL/SEM II

 

41

 

MASTER YEAR II FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE

 

CODE

Courses

Modules

Credits

PA711

Dissertation/Thesis

Data Collection, Dissertation/Thesis writing up& Public Defense

25

 

TOTAL /SEMESTER

 

25

 

TOTAL GENERAL

 

120

 

9. OUTLINE OF COURSES OFFERED THROUGHOUT THE PROGRAMME

RESEARCH METHODS

Scientific research methodology

This course will provide an opportunity for students to establish or advance their understanding of research through critical exploration of research language, ethics, and approaches. The course introduces the language of research, ethical principles and challenges, and the elements of the research process within quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches. Students will use these theoretical underpinnings to begin to critically review literature relevant to their field or interests and determine how research findings are useful in forming their understanding of their work, social, local and global environment.

Objectives

– The student understands research terminology

– The student is aware of the ethical principles of research, ethical challenges and approval processes;

– The student describes quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods approaches to research

– The student identifies the components of a literature review process

– The student critically analyzes published research

 

Bio-Statistics

Objectives

The objective of this course is to introduce students to statistical methods and to understand underlying principles, as well as practical guidelines of “how to do it” and “how to interpret it” statistical data.

The student will be capable of performing the data analysis, and of interpreting the results, and he will be able to translate these conclusions back to the context of the original research question.

Emphasis is put on the exercises, most of which are on PC with statistical software. The examples and exercises are based on case studies relevant to the students work environment. In particular, examples are selected from fisheries, aquaculture, plant/botanical and environmental sciences. The practical are organized in groups. Depending on the number of students, the groups are made as homogeneous as possible in terms of the scientific interest of the students. Each group gets a different set of exercises so as to make the exercises as relevant as possible for each group.

Initial competences

A basic knowledge of calculus and probability theory (random variables, probability and distributions) is required.

Final competences

Upon completing of this course, students should be able to:

– understand the basics of statistical data exploration and statistical inference;

– perform basic statistical data analyses using the software R;

– apply appropriate statistical tests based on an understanding of study question, type of study and type of data;

– recognize important problems in the study design/analyses and knows how these may affect the conclusions from the statistical data analysis;

– interpret results of statistical tests;

– correctly report the results of a statistical data analysis in a scientific report.

 

SPATIAL ANALYZES (GIS, RS)

Objectives

The course aims to provide:  

– An understanding and working knowledge of Geographic Information Systems (GIS);

– To gain applied experience in using GIS through a number of case study exercises;

– An understanding of the physics of remote sensing and major remote sensing systems that are in operation today. This will include the advantages and disadvantages of each of the major systems.

– An understanding of current research, technology and policy developments in the GIS/RS area and their potential applications to environmental, fisheries, aquaculture and sustainability issues.

Initial competences

Working knowledge of computer word processing, spread sheet, presentation and browser programs.

Final competences

The student is expected understand and use the GIS and Remote Sensing as tools to better address environmental, fisheries and aquaculture management and sustainability issues in real world applications.

 

ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Keywords

The course examines the political and legal framework for impact assessment and the procedures and approaches that are routinely applied to evaluate and mitigate the impact of major developments. The course also introduces sustainability assessment, strategic environmental assessment and the theory and practice of biophysical offsets as a mitigation measure in managing unavoidable residual impacts of projects. The course also develops an awareness and understanding of the theoretical and practical processes of Social Impact Assessment. The history and development of Social Impact Assessment is presented alongside practical learning of the processes.

 

Objectives

The course aims to: 

– Explain and assess the process, and underlying principles and concepts, of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and social Impact assessment (SIA).

– Explore the methods and techniques used in the stages of the EIA-SIA process.

– Evaluate the operation of EIA – SIA in the DRC and other countries.

 

Initial competences

General biology and basic knowledge in environmental sciences.

Final competences

At the end of the course students are expected to :

– Understand the commonly accepted definitions of Environmental and Social Impact Assessment;

Understand the history of EIA-SIA legislation; understand how Social Impact Assessment fits into the overall Environmental Impact Assessment process in developing and developed countries;

Gain familiarity with the theory, process and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and understand how EIA aids decision-making;

– Be familiar with and understand the country environmental protection legislation; 

Be able to recognize good and bad practice in the pre-assessment, assessment and post assessment phases of EIA-SIA;

Gain an understanding of the aims and scope of Strategic environmental assessment, sustainability    assessment and biophysical offsetting;

Develop and practice teamwork skills by working as part of a multi-disciplinary team.

 

WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS

 

The course aims at the evaluation of the physical, chemical and biological water quality. This is essential for the abatement of freshwater pollution. For this, sound and sustainable water quality assessment programmes is aimed at integrating the different steps in the monitoring cycle, from the information needs, monitoring network design, field and laboratory procedures up to data collection and processing.

Initial competences

General biology, chemistry, microbiology, pathology.

Final competences

Upon the completion of the course, students will be able to:

– Understand and apply concepts of water quality and pollution processes in rivers and lakes;

– Understand and apply the different steps of the monitoring cycle in rivers and lakes;

– Understand the basic concepts of groundwater quality and monitoring;

– Apply common statistical techniques for water quality data evaluation;

– Design sound and sustainable freshwater quality monitoring and assessment programmes under specified conditions.

 

PROPOSAL DEVELOPMENT

Analysis and problem solving.

Experiment planning and implementation including sampling and analytical work, literature searching, scientific writing.

Training oral and writing presentation.

 

ADVANCED FISH TAXONOMIC METHODS

Objectives

The course aims to provide the students with the knowledge on the theory, methods and practice of the taxonomy and classification of fish species.  Classification, evolutionary history, nomenclature, collecting and preserving fish samples.

Initial competences

General biology and basic knowledge on morphology

Final competences

– Students will have extensive hands-on experience with the morphology of fish species;

– Students will be able to immediately recognize the most common fish families;

– Students will acquire dissection and drawing skills;

– Students will learn to use keys correctly and effectively;

– Students will understand fish names and acquire a good overview of fish evolutionary history;

– Students will learn how to collect and preserve fish specimens.

 

 

 

FISHERY BIOLOGY

The course intends – to introducing students to basic concepts of fisheries biology that will be developed in greater detail in subsequent classes; – to expose students to an array of fisheries biology methodologies (both theoretical and practical) including study design, sampling techniques, and report writing. And finally, – to introduce students to the basic principles of fisheries biology and examination of the biological foundations of current problems affecting the fisheries, with an emphasis on developing sound science-based strategies to resolve these problems.

Objectives

The course aims:

– To describe the general taxonomic groupings of fish and some of the key features of fish in these groups.

– To discuss similarities and differences in important biological processes such as feeding, growth, reproduction and migration.

– To explain why a good understanding of biological aspects such as reproductive strategy, recruitment and trophic ecology are essential in order to properly manage fisheries.

– to discuss the underlying biological issues that are relevant to recent fisheries issues such as aquaculture, fisheries collapses and the potential impacts of climate change.

Initial competences

General biology, limnology, microbiology, aquaculture, environmental; sciences,

Final competences

Upon the completion of the course, students will be able to:

– understand the techniques in fishery biology, including the overview of fishery research methods: sampling theory, collection gear, stock identification methods, age and growth, tagging, and estimation of population size;

– understand the quantitative fisheries methods including statistical methods, basic sampling and experimental design, and models for fish growth, recruitment, mortality, and population dynamics;

– understand the overview of theoretical and practical constraints of fish conservation and management with focus on use of quantitative tools;

– understand the basic principles of fisheries biology and

– examine the biological foundations with relation to current problems affecting the fisheries,

  understand the environmental influences on life history, behavior, growth, and survival of fishes.

– understand the distribution, diversity, and abundance of freshwa­ter fish species, and inter­actions between species, including relevance for conservation and management.

 

PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF WETLANDS

Keywords

Wetlands provide crucial ecosystem services among which provisioning of drinking water, food (fishes, waterfowl) and flood regulation. The understanding of the ecology and management of wetlands and wetland dependent species is capital for wetlands conservation. Each lecture will strive to provide basic background information and integrate this with recent advances on the forefront of research. The field trips will familiarize students with wetlands, wetland-dependent wildlife and methods in habitat management.

Objectives

The course aims to:

– Understand the ecology and management of wetlands and wetland dependent species,

– Understand the ecological and socio-economic values of wetlands,

– Develop skills in planning data collection, data analysis,

– Critical thinking for practical conservation and management challenges of wetlands,

– Written and oral skills to exchange positively with researchers, stakeholders, policy makers, and public.

Initial competences

General biology and basic knowledge in environmental sciences.

Final competences

At the end of the course, the students will be able to:

– Evaluate the usefulness of wetlands as treatment systems of waste water;
– Evaluate anthropogenic impacts on wetlands,

– Recognize the complexity of wetland adaptive management and the importance of integrating stakeholders from the beginning of the process
– Develop management plans and integrate different perspectives to wetland management plans for ecosystem services provisioning
– Adopt a long-term solution oriented attitude

– Apply acquired knowledge and scientific skills in international and multicultural teams and different socio-cultural environments.

 

PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES RESOURCES

Keywords

The paradigm of fisheries as linked social-ecological systems will be used to develop an understanding about how biology, economics, human communities and legislative factors all contribute to outcomes in fisheries management. Case studies from tropical regions will be examined, including small scale, artisanal, recreational and industrial fisheries.

 

Objectives /Position of the course

The course aims to:

– Examine the process of managing fisheries in tropical regions to ensure positive outcomes for fish stocks, ecosystems and human communities;

– Develop practical skills in achieving positive outcomes in fisheries management.

Initial competences

Natural resource management principles, basic knowledge in biological, environmental sciences and fisheries.

Final competences

At the completion this course the students are expected to:

Understand the biological, economic, social and legislative basis for fisheries management;

Appreciate the range of processes used to manage fisheries in tropical regions;

– Develop skills relevant to achieving positive outcomes in fisheries management

PLANKTONOLOGY

Objectives

The aim is:

– To provide students with updated and in-depth high-level theoretical and practical training on how to            identify and classify zoo and phytoplankton groups,

– To understand the global significance of plankton in the aquatic food web; and

– Understated the environmental factors that affect the growth and distribution of plankton.

Initial competences

Basic knowledge in Biology, Limnology, biophysics, physics, chemistry and environmental science

 

Final competences

At the end of the course, the students are able:

 To identify and describe main zoo/phytoplanktonic and macroalgal taxa: emphasis on morphology, biology and importance of the most common species freshwater;

– Identify and describe the occurrence of different key groups of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish in relation to environmental factors;

– Understand the structure and function of plankton communities;

To explain the role of plankton in the waters especially to support fisheries and aquaculture;

Describe, collect and explain field and laboratory data;

 

AQUARIOLOGY

Keywords

This course examines the history of animal keeping and present day aquatic animal husbandry industry. It course explores the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the aquarium environment. The course also provides students with a broad background in the diseases, nutrition, genetics and breeding of aquarium and ornamental fishes. It covers the proper set up and maintenance of experimental and home aquaria.

. Objectives

Assess the physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the aquatic environment;

Create and maintain suitable aquatic habitats;

Properly use associated tools and equipment;

– Recognize major groupings of fishes species found in the aquarium industry and use appropriate criteria for their selection to aquarium systems;

Identify employment venues and information resources.

Initial competences

Basic knowledge in Biology, microbiology, limnology, environmental sciences, chemistry, physics, pathogenesis, water quality,

Final competences

Upon the completion of this course, the students will be able to:

– Set up, establish and maintain an aquarium system with live aquatic organisms;

– Identify various species of common aquarium organisms;

– Maintenance of aquariums water quality;

– Understand the breeding techniques of common aquarium organisms /fish;

– Recognize breeding behavior in common aquarium organisms;

– Observe and identify various disease causing organisms significant to the aquarium industry;

– Transfer and acclimation of live fish to an established aquarium system;

– Record keeping and data collection for aquarium systems.

 

AQUACULTURE

Keywords

Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish.

Objectives /Position of the course

PARTIM 1 & 2: extensive, semi-intensive, intensive and integrated systems,

This course aims at the understanding of principles of aquaculture and gives outline about the basics and history of aquaculture. A wide range of aspects such as systems of aquaculture, aquaculture in different types of water bodies, Principles of organic aquaculture, Pond management, study of Monoculture, polyculture and integrated culture systems, Water and soil quality in relation to fish production and estimation of productivity, factors affecting productivity of ponds, nutrition, health management and economics.

Initial competences

The understanding of science subjects including basic biology, chemistry, aquaculture and statistics.

Final competences

Upon successful completion of this course, the students will be able to understand:

– Aquaculture basics and scope

Principles of aquaculture and organic aquaculture;

Different types of systems (extensive, semi-intensive, intensive and integrated systems) of aquaculture;

– Site selection and construction of fish farm;

Operating management of different types of systems of aquaculture;

Principles of hatchery management, including the biology of fish reproduction, spawning techniques, egg incubation, and larval rearing;

– Selection of candidate species for aquaculture and major cultivable freshwater fishes and hatcheries;

– Soil and water quality parameters in aquaculture;

– Physical, chemical and biological factors affecting productivity of systems of aquaculture;

PARTIM 3: ECONOMIC ASPECTS

Objectives

This course aims at the understanding of the economics and financial aspects of a typical aquaculture project.

Initial competences

General biology, pathology, chemistry, biochemistry and basic knowledge on aquaculture.

Final competences

– The student has insight into the principle of business accounts and is able to make a balance sheet, a profit /loss account and a cash flow.

– The student can perform breakeven analysis.

– The student has insight into strategic management frameworks.

– The student can evaluate working capital management of an aquaculture of fish product trading company.

– The student can make decisions based on relevant costing techniques and on net present value and internal rate of return.

– The student has knowledge on certification in the fisheries supply chain.

FISH FEED AND NUTRITION

Objectives

The course covers a number of general and specific issues related to (non-live) feed requirements, feed characteristics, and feed production, feeding practices in an aquaculture context.

Initial competences

General biology, chemistry, biochemistry and basic knowledge on aquaculture.

Final competences

– The student is able to enumerate the main ingredients being used for aquaculture feeds, their advantages and disadvantages, and is able to critically evaluate tendencies within aquaculture nutrition with a focus on enhanced sustainability of rearing practices

– The student is able to explain why an ingredient is suitable for the production of feeds in the aquatic environment.

– The student understands which feed ingredients are necessary, and in which proportions, to compose a balanced artificial aquaculture diet depending on the species and the rearing context

– The student is able to describe how the organism takes advantage of the feed ingredients and how feed formulation is related to intake and digestion by the organism.

– The student is able to describe the various methods for feed analysis and can argue why they may be suitable in a scientific and/or an industrial production environment.

– The student has insight into compound feed formulation based on linear programming

FISH DISEASES

Objectives

The aim of the course is to understand the importance of microbial, viral and parasitic diseases in fisheries (natural catches) and aquaculture (cultured fish), how to enumerate micro-organisms, to convey methodologies to prevent, to cure microbial diseases and how to handle, manipulate and sample fish.

Initial competences

General biology, microbiology, fisheries biology, parasitology, chemistry, biochemistry and basic knowledge on fisheries and aquaculture.

Final competences

– The student has insight into microbial morphology.

– The student has insight into techniques to enumerate bacteria.

– The student has knowledge on aquatic animal diseases and their causative/eliciting agents.

– The student has insight into the pathogenesis of microbial diseases.

– The student has insight into the importance of hygienic techniques in an aquaculture environment.

– The student understands techniques for disease prevention, including the use of probiotics, immunostimulants and vaccines.

– The student understands techniques for disease mitigation such as the use of antibiotics and bacteriophages.

– The student has knowledge on handling and sampling techniques.

-The student is able to enumerate aquaculture pathogens.

– The student is able to determine antibiotic resistance transmission among bacterial species.

– The student has knowledge on basic principles in epidemiology and ethical issues

 

 

MANAGEMENT OF QUALITY AND SAFETY OF FISH PRODUCTS

Objectives

The aim of this course is to create an insight in the relation between post-mortem changes in fish and the consequences on its quality and further processing. Furthermore, the students should get familiar with the different processes used in the fish industry as well as aspects of safety and quality and basic principles of legislation and hygienic processing.

Initial competences

General knowledge on chemistry, biochemistry and microbiology

Final competences

– To have insights in the properties and post-mortem changes of fish as a raw material and how these properties influence the quality of the derived fish and fishery products.

– To have insights in how processing used for the production of fishery products influences the properties and the quality of the produced product.

– To be able to identify and explain the consecutive steps in the production of a fishery product.

-To be able to argument on quality and safety aspects of fishery products in a certain situation.

– To be able to critically reflect and make substantiated decisions based on scientific literature related to fish processing and technology.

 

10. WELCOME AND INTEGRATION RELATED ACTIVITIES

At the beginning of the first semester, the University organizes through the Faculty of Arts and Humanities a French Week speaking activities, for the integration of new and international students; especially for those coming from non- French speaking countries.  This is part of the various integration activities at the university including, visits and excursions at tourist hotspots around and outside Bukavu Town.

At the University, there are many language clubs for national and international students; some of these include French Club, English Club, Chinese Club, Japanese Club, Spanish Club, etc. as well as sports clubs and many cultural and religious movements animated by students. These clubs and movements constitute real centres for integration of national and international students coping with the multicultural university life. In addition to clubs and movements, there are schools and centres of languages that provide short training language (national and international) courses to students to cope with studies at the university.

 

11. TACKLING MAJOR DEVELOPMENT ISSUES IN THE EAST AND CENTRAL AFRICA REGION

Among the major development issues in the East and Central Africa region (Kivu Provinces in DR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi), a multitude of questions of common interest have always been asked in our postgraduate training programme in the fields of Environment, Biology and Geology. Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, Forests, Natural phenomena, Zoology, Limnology, Biodiversity of Lakes Tanganyika, Kivu, Edward, Albert and very pronounced endemism.

Fisheries – Eutrophication – Water quantity and quality, Transportation on Lakes as shipping Corridors, Invasive Species – Ecosystems still Natural but less – known – Experimentation in the Natural Environment;  Potential eruption hazard in Lake Kivu, volcanism and various issues of development interest are considered in the programme; such as: 1. Lakes, rivers and wetlands; 2. Forests; 3. Minerals; 4. Natural gas; 5. Oil; 6. Parks and reserves; 7. Family land size and quality and use; 8. Bio-technology; 9. Soils; 10. Drinking water and irrigation; 11. Municipal water; 12. Urban waste; 13. Agriculture; 14. Breeding; 15. Pollutions (soil, water, forest and atmosphere); 16. Industries; 17. Tourism and Eco-tourism; 18. Mushrooms, non-wood (non-timber) forest resources; 19. Precious embers; 20. Embers and deforestation, soft and renewable energy; 21. Bushfires; 22. Reforestation (afforestation); 23. Limnic encroachments; 24. Fishing resources; 25. Hydro-electricity; 26. Wastewater; 27. Waste recycling; 28. Volcanism and aerosols; 29. Earthquakes; 30. Climate Change and climate disruption; 31. Resilience to climate disturbances; 32. Import safety: GMOs, exotic species; 33. Endemics, epidemics; 34. Health management; 35. Specific issues of Ebola virus: virology, epidemiology, prevention, cooperation and response; 36. Regional thermal waters: ecological, tourism, health and scientific values.

1.  Lakes, rivers and wetlands

The Great Lakes: Mwero, Bangwelo, Tanganyika, Kivu, Edward, Albert, Victoria, Nyassa, Turkana, and many inland lakes, represent very great values in development, not only because of fisheries but also other aquatic resources such as high-energy natural gas and chemical fertilizers and nitrogen chemical compounds as fertilizers, oil, municipal waters, irrigation waters with risks of soil salinization that deserves to be mastered for economic interest. The issue of the limnic eruption hazard potential, as it happened at Lake Nyos in Cameroon, is a priority for preventive studies in Lake Kivu, a phenomenon that affects DR Congo, Rwanda and Burundi.

Cross-border Rivers are of immense interest in development; we can immediately mention Ruzizi, Ishasha Rivers with their hydrology which determines the power of hydroelectric dams for DR Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda and other neighboring countries.  It is true that the energy potential of the methane gas from Lake Kivu in the DRC and Rwanda side represents more than 200 megawatts for DR Congo, Rwanda and the region.

Fisheries in rivers, water use in agriculture with an enlightened look at the issue of soil salinization, deserves extensive limno-chemical analyses.  The value of lakes and rivers in regional transportation is immense.

2. Natural gas

It is well known that the use of OTTO engines can convert this methane gas into electric energy with high values exceeding 200 megawatts.  In the case of Lake Kivu but also Tanganyika and others, all these lakes being meromictic.

3. Oil

Oil in Lakes Edward, Albert and Tanganyika is posed as a major issue of development, tourism, conservation of these Lakes.  Only studies at the doctoral level can provide scientific insights into the issues.

4. Parks and reserves

Many parks and reserves of very high values in development deserve to be studied comparatively so that results inspire each other to optimize their operation for the benefit of climate, tourism and financial yield.

5. Family land

The management of the family soil is an essential concept as a basic unit for the good management of the regional environment.  What are the optima and what do we observe comparatively in the choice of crops, soil and water conservation and conflict management and profitability in the region?

6. Biotechnology

Processing capacity is very low in the region, but this weakness is not equitable.  There are regions more advanced than others that can bring inspiration and development, including fruit transformation to produce juices and beers and wines, foods of great economic values. Remediation of waste in the light of advanced technology can also improve the standards of living in our cities, which have become numerous in our regions characterized by rapid and somehow chaotic and unplanned urbanization.  The exchange of experience in this area at the university and industry level will be essential.

7. Soils

Soils are the main support for the livelihood of our 80% agricultural communities in the region.  Soil scientists will help integrate the soil variables in our environmental analyses, which will produce many useful recommendations in regional development regarding physical-chemical, microbiological and soil fauna data.

8. Mushrooms, non-woody (non-timber) forest resources

With the three (3) University in Brussels, Belgium, research is being carried out at UOB to produce edible mushrooms in collaboration with the University of Burundi (UB), National University of Rwanda (NUR), and University of Goma (UNIGOM).  Optimizing mycelium production in the region can allow families and associations to produce mushrooms of great nutritional and economic value.

9. Precious wood (timber)

Everyone knows that there are rare forest species that are produced in our forests and that are trafficked cheaply against regional development. Studies at the master’s and doctoral level should help to rationalize and sustain the exploitation of these species.

10. Ember and deforestation, soft and renewable energy

The consumption of embers in our cities, the immediate factors of deforestation in our region, deserves to be studied at an advanced level in a comparative way.

11. Bushfires

Bushfires deserve to be studied as a devastating factor in the environment and as a producer of greenhouse gases.

12. Reforestation (afforestation)

Reforestation is essential for the economic development of communities, mainly living from agriculture, livestock and sometimes even harvesting.

13. Limnic eruption

It is known that a limnic explosion of CO2 and methane in Lake Kivu would kill people in millions as far away from Goma to Bujumbura in Burundi.  Thus, the research programme would involve Dr Klaus Tietze’s huge amount of research work on Lake Kivu gas issues for a beneficial follow up at the industrial level.

14. Fisheries and aquaculture Resources

Large lake fisheries are of great development value whose potential must be clearly assessed with scientific recommendations.

15. Hydro-electricity

The region’s major rivers have great hydroelectric potential that scientists need to specify.  Apart from the construction of dams and the work of engineers, environmental issues, infrastructure and environmental impact assessment is needed at a post-graduate level.

16. Wastewater management and recycling of solid and liquid waste deserve comparative scientific studies in the region for objective development.

17. Regional thermal waters.  To study together economic, tourism, industrial, health and scientific values.